Hobbes also maintained that the social contract was an agreement only among the people and not between them and their king. On this point, Montesquieu may well have been influenced by a similar pronouncement in The Histories of Herodotuswhere he makes a distinction between the "ideal" temperate climate of Greece as opposed to the overly cold climate of Scythia and the overly warm climate of Egypt.
Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with violence and oppression. From how many crimes, wars, and murders, from how many horrors and misfortunes might not any one have saved mankind, by pulling up the stakes, or filling up the ditch, and crying to his fellows: It is a state prior to any socialization.
Hobbes borrowed a concept from English contract law: A new age with fresh ideas was emerging—the European Enlightenment. The only way out of this situation, Hobbes said, was for individuals to create some supreme power to impose peace on everyone.
He feared religion could become a source of civil war. Some human qualities are given to us through nature and exist in a natural state as well as in a socialized state, unless they are suppressed, like compassion for others, simple needs like the sexual drive, and a basic love for oneself.
These theories represent attempts to explain the creation of the state and its deformations as a natural process, and without the help of a divine foundation. He traveled extensively throughout Europe, including England, where he studied the Parliament.
In the last chapter of this book, after describing the problems of a political order that creates inequality, he asks: A good way to make laws is for all the people to directly vote on them. This may be of interest to you: When I say that the object of laws is always general, I mean that law considers subjects en masse and actions in the abstract, and never a particular person or action.
Montesquieu thought he saw a separation and balancing of the powers of government in England. Religion should be a part of the government. Shortly after Charles was executed, an English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes —wrote Leviathana defense of the absolute power of kings.
What can we consider as the foundation of political order, if this order is not decreed by God, or deducible from nature? The groups should then debate the topic from the point of view of the philosopher they are role playing.
The Extreme Democrat Jean-Jacques Rousseau — was born in Geneva, Switzerland, where all adult male citizens could vote for a representative government. Thomas Hobbes stood out among the four philosophers in that he believed that a strong absolute monarchy was the best form of government.
Rousseau describes the process through which primitive societies evolve in his treatise Discourse on Inequality, published in With growing inequality private property becomes more and more important, and an artificial status hierarchy gets established within society. According to Rousseau, the powerful rich stole the land belonging to everyone and fooled the common people into accepting them as rulers.
When he wrote The Spirit of the Laws, power was concentrated pretty much in Parliament, the national legislature. Other qualities exist only as potentialities in the human nature; they have to be activated and will unfold through society, like language, and culture in general.
Rousseau distinguishes strictly between the legislative powers and the executive, and he gives primacy to the legislative branch. Our relationship to nature changed profoundly, and with it the understanding of our own human nature.
He undertakes this to attack the reductionist ideas of Hobbes and Mandeville, who strip man of God and claim that humans are animalistic and violent.
The latter we shall call the judiciary power, and the other, simply, the executive power of the state.
List of principal works. But he wanted representatives to be only men of property and business.May 25, · The major difference between Locke and Rousseau's account of the state of nature is the reason for using it as a literary device.
For Locke, the state of nature has the capacity to become a state of war but it can also be a place of increased libe. Rousseau concluded that the social contract was not a willing agreement, as Hobbes, Locke, and Montesquieu had believed, but a fraud against the people committed by the rich.
InRousseau published his most important work on political theory, The Social. Get an answer for 'What were the similarities and differences between Montesquieu, Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau's philosophy, ideas, and views on government?
' and find homework help for other. Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau study guide by alexisajimenez includes 27 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Quizlet flashcards, activities and games help you improve your grades.
This study of Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau is designed to give students an understanding of the ideas of these four philosophers and is also an opportunity for them to reflect on humanity’s need for order and efforts to create stability within the social.
Hobbes, Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau on Government Montesquieu did not describe a social contract as such. But he said that the state of war among individuals and nations led to human laws and government.
Montesquieu, and Rousseau do you think is the best? Why?Download