Guoli Taiwan daxue chuban zhongxin. He also emphasized that a national or dynastic history had to be based on local history, for which reason local gazetteers were of immense importance.
I have not been able to examine either of these versions. First, it addressed controversies that sharply divided the literati class of the late eighteenth century. Instead, Zhang Xuecheng stressed that a mixture of these approaches, using the strength of each individidual interpretative discipline, was fruit-bearing in the criticism of literature in general and of historiography in particular.
Intellectual history since that time has been a dialectical process of always incomplete vision of the truth, ages of philosophy, of Yuan mei vs zhang xeucheng essay, and of literary art succeeding each other endlessly, each age blind to the values it fails to realize.
Late Imperial China Vol. Essays and Letters of Zhang Xuecheng Stanford: According to Hu Shi, Zhang wrote Fuxue inat the age of In he passed the examinations for the highest civil service degree jinshibut he never took office, and supported himself usually through teaching appointments in local academies, commissions to compile local and family histories, and research and writing sponsored by patrons notably Bi Yuan, — He said that there is not only a national or dynastic history but also that of a family and even that of a single person, each of which had to be presented by different historiographical types, namely biographiesfamily registersand geographical history.
Zhang crystalizes his vision in the famous one-line evaluation of the Confucian Classicsopening his collected essays, Wenshi tongyi General Principles of Literary and Historical Criticism: In this aspect of his thought Zhang is close to the Ming dynasty Confucian moralist Wang Shouren Wang Yangming, — ; but unlike Wang he never himself had a religious drive toward self-cultivation.
Modern Interpretation of Zhgang Xuecheng — This was one reason why Zhang Xuecheng compiled his Wenshi tongyi. As a youth Zhang developed a keen interest in the art and theory of historical writing, admiring the Tang dynasty historiographer Liu Zhiji — It was therefore important that they had a consistent structure covering all aspects.
Additional Information In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: According to Hu Shi, Zhang wrote Fuxue inat the age of This ideal state of affairs ended some centuries before Confucius.
He had strong conservative prejudices about the status of women, expressed in several vigorous essays attacking the poet Yuan Mei — IvanhoeOn Ethics and History: Zhang Xuecheng was very interested in local history and revised and published quite a few local gazetteers.
It was reprinted in two mid-Qing collectanea: He much admired the early Qing historian Huang Zongxi — and other Zhejiang authors, and is sometimes classed as a "member" of an "Eastern Zhejiang school" of historical learning.
New Sources Mann, Susan.
Both failed to trespass these narrow borders. Zhang articulated his vision of the human past in his local history of Hezhou ; only fragments are extanthis Jiaochou tongyi Philosophy of Bibliography,and especially in his monograph-length essay Yuandao The Analysis of the Way, View freely available titles: A modern punctuated reprint is in Zhang Xuecheng, Wen shi tongyi Includes an annotated bibliography of important Chinese and Japanese sources.
Late Imperial China Vol.
Neither Nivison nor Chen, nor Hu Shi in his biography of Zhang, remarks on where the essay first appeared. Zhongzhou guji chuanshep.
Zhang had several Buddhist friends, whom he teased good-naturedly, but he was open-mindedly willing to own that Buddhism might be saying something true and valuable in its own way.
The Fuxue, on the other hand, was an instant success, Nivison Probably its most widely read version appeared later, during the early twentieth century, in the Xiangyan congshu, a collection of writings about women published during the early twentieth century Xiangyan congshu, ji 2, juan 4: He saw all moral conventions, institutions, traditions of learning, and genres of writing as taking form in an early state of the human condition in which there was no distinction between public official and private aspects of life, when all kinds of writing were naturally beautiful or useful according to their function, anonymous and unmarred by personal vanity.
Nivison and His Critics, edited by Philip J. These controversies centered not on women, but on classical revival and the correct or orthodox interpretation of classical texts, which were then being philologically dissected to determine their authenticity. First, it addressed controversies that sharply divided the literati class of the late eighteenth century.
Among his associates and mentors were, notably, Zhu Yun —81whom he acknowledged as his master, and the philosopher and philologue Dai Zhen —77whom Zhang admired for his philosophical essays but criticized strongly for his opposition to the ideas of the Song dynasty Confucian moralist Zhu Xi — Lun Dai Zhen yu Zhang Xuecheng.
These controversies centered not on women, but on classical revival and the correct or orthodox interpretation of classical texts, which were then being philologically dissected to determine their authenticity.Zhang XueCheng "I have heard that in the pursuit of classical studies, generally three [things are] diﬃcult [to afain]: broad erudiAon, sound judgment, and criAcal discernment.
I certainly cannot lay claim to any of these, but I hold that the criteria of good scholarship should be rooted in them" (de Bary and Lufrano, 47). WriteWork is the biggest source online where you can find thousands of free school & college essays, research & term papers, book reports in over categories.
Register now for totally unlimited access. WriteWork. Essays & Writing Guides for Students. Yuan Mei Vs Zhang Xeucheng. Zhang Xuecheng was the first Chinese historian who wrote a kind of theory of the local gazetteer, the Zhouxian qingli zhi keyi 州縣請立志科議.
Local gazetteers were, he said, an ideal instrument not only to provide historical material but also a help to revise errors, generalisations or misconceptions in national histories. Finally, Zhang's essay appealed to a wide audience because it was a bitter personal attack on the poet Yuan Mei and his literary theories.
"Women's Learning" ridicules a certain nameless patron of women poets, and derides the "ignorant minions" and "benighted intellectuals" who do not understand the true meaning of the great classics. Wenshi tongyi 文史通義 is a literary critique written by the philosopher, writer and historian Zhang Xuecheng 章學誠 ().
Zhang Xuecheng (–) has primarily been read as a philosopher of history. This volume presents him as an ethical philosopher with a distinctive understanding of the aims and methods of Confucian self-cultivation.
Offered in English translation for the first time, this collection of Zhang's essays and letters should challenge our current.Download